• U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit
The 4th Amendment warrant requirement is subject to reasonable exceptions, which include: 1.) the "hot pursuit" exception; 2.) the exigent circumstances exception; 3.) the "protective sweep" exception; and 4.) an "exception for searches incident to arrest [that] permits the police to search a lawfully arrested person and areas within his immediate control," pursuant to the U.S. Supreme Court's 1990 decision in Smith v. Ohio.